Ionic liquids (ILs) are created for a specific application, therefore the short name TSILs (task specific ionic liquids) is often used. Ionic liquids are chemical compounds (salts) consisting only of ions whose melting point is below 100⁰C. Due to their practical applications, the most interesting are those ionic liquids that exist in the liquid phase at room temperature. They consist of a large and asymmetric organic cation and an organic or inorganic anion. Appropriate selection of anions and cations and their modifications makes it possible to compose ionic liquids of various structures and properties. Therefore, knowing the influence of the structure of an ionic liquid on its properties, it is possible to design a compound for a specific application.
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Advantages of ionic liquids:
– low vapor pressure – low-volatile substances,
– low toxicity – ecologically friendly substances,
– wide temperature range in which they are in liquid form,
– high stability,
– ability to dissolve many compounds,
– high conductivity.
By selecting the appropriate structure of the compound, high-energy ionic liquids can be obtained, which can be used as explosives or rocket fuels. Many studies show the spontaneous (hypergolic) ignition of high-energy ionic liquids in contact with an oxidant. This feature is very desirable in rocket propulsion, because both components ignite spontaneously and no additional ignition system or catalyst is required.
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